# [Ride v5] Continued Computations
If the complexity of a dApp script exceeds 4000, its execution is split into several stages. A block generator that adds an Invoke Script transaction to a block performs computations with the total complexity up to 4000 and saves intermediate results in the internal database. Then the block generator, the same or another if a new block has already been created, detects an incomplete computation sequence, creates a Continuation transaction, and adds it to the block, performing the next stage of computations. The process continues until the script is completely executed or fails.
Thus, the first stage of computations is performed within the Invoke Script transaction. The further stages are performed within Continuation transactions created automatically by block generators. Continuation transaction fields are described in the Continuation Transaction article.
- Continued computations are added in node version 1.3.0 and enabled with feature #16 “Ride V5, dApp-to-dApp invocations, Continuations”. Versions 1.3.x are now available for Stagenet only.
- The dApp script uses Standard library version 5.
- The Invoke Script transaction version is 3.
Continued computations and dApp-to-dApp invocation are mutually exclusive, that is, they cannot be initiated by the same transaction.
# Suspension of Other Transactions Involving dApp
Until the computation sequence is completed, transactions that can reduce the dApp balance cannot be added to a block (they are not rejected but pending in the UTX pool:
- Transactions that are sent on behalf of the dApp.
- Transactions that invoke the dApp.
- Exchange transactions in which the dApp is one of the order senders.
- Transactions with fee in a sponsored asset issued by the dApp.
Meanwhile, any transfers in favor of the dApp, leases to the dApp, and cancellations of leases to the dApp are allowed.
# Blockchain Data Usage
During all the stages of computations, the dApp script operates the same blockchain data.
# 1. Entries of dApp's Own Data Storage
Due to the suspension of other transactions involving the dApp (see above), the dApp's data storage entries do not change from the start of the script execution until the end. The dApp script can get data from its own storage at any stage, that is, in any of the transactions in the computation sequence, using the following functions:
|getBinary(key: String): ByteVector|Unit||Gets an array of bytes by key from the dApp's own data storage|
|getBinaryValue(key: String): ByteVector||Gets an array of bytes by key from the dApp's own data storage. Fails if there is no data|
|getBoolean(key: String): Boolean|Unit||Gets a boolean value by key from the dApp's own data storage|
|getBooleanValue(key: String): Boolean||Gets a boolean value by key from the dApp's own data storage. Fails if there is no data|
|getInteger(key: String): Int|Unit||Gets an integer by key from the dApp's own data storage|
|getIntegerValue(key: String): Int||Gets an integer by key from the dApp's own data storage. Fails if there is no data|
|getString(key: String): String|Unit||Gets a string by key from the dApp's own data storage|
|getStringValue(key: String): String||Gets a string by key from the dApp's own data storage. Fails if there is no data|
For the functions description, see the Account Data Storage Functions article.
# 2. External Data
All the blockchain data, except for the dApp's data storage entries, are considered external. External data include:
- Entries of data storages of other accounts.
- Account balances, including the dApp account itself.
- Current blockchain height.
- Asset parameters, block headers, transactions, etc.
All external data used by the dApp script must be obtained at the first stage of computations. The complexity of the script's part from the beginning to the last function that reads external data of the blockchain should not exceed 4000 inclusive.
If the script contains branches, it is not known in advance which branch will be executed. Therefore, the total complexity for all branches is taken into account. Consider the following scheme:
If the operations
op-b3 read the external data of the blockchain, then the total complexity of the operations
op-b3 must not exceed 4000, otherwise the dApp script cannot be assigned to an account (Set Script transaction would be rejected).
The sender should specify a fee taking into account the maximum possible number of computation stages and script actions.
The minimum fee in WAVES for an Invoke Script transaction is calculated as follows:
Fee = (0.005 +
E) × ⌈
С / 4000⌉ +
S + 0.004 ×
P + 0.004 ×
A + 1 ×
E is the extra fee specified in the
extraFeePerStep can be 0. The transaction sender can specify
extraFeePerStep > 0 in order to raise the processing priority of transactions of the computation sequence.
С is the complexity of the callable function.
С/4000 rounded up to the nearest integer is the number of stages in the computation sequence.
S = 0.004 if the transaction sender is a dApp or smart account, otherwise 0.
P is the number of payments in smart assets attached to the transaction.
A is the number of script actions (transfers, reissues, burnings) with smart assets.
I is the number of issued assets that are not NFT.
The sender is charged the entire fee amount specified in the Invoke Script transaction when the transaction is added to a block. If the fee is indicated in the sponsored asset, the sponsor is charged the fee equivalent in WAVES.
The fee is distributed as follows:
- For the Invoke Script transaction: 0.005 +
S+ 0.004 ×
- For each Continuation transaction except the last one: 0.005 +
- For the last transaction of the continuation: 0.005 +
E+ 0.004 ×
A+ 1 ×
(By the Waves-NG protocol, the generator of the block to which the transaction is added receives 40% of the transaction fee, and the next block generator receives 60% of the fee.)
After the script is completely executed or fails, the fee's unused portion (for stages and asset scripts whose execution was not started; see example below) is returned to the sender. If the fee is indicated in the sponsored asset, the WAVES equivalent of this portion of the fee is returned to the sponsor.
Note: the threshold for saving failed transactions is applicable only to Invoke Script transactions. If the script fails or throws an exception at one of the subsequent stages, the Continuation transaction is saved on the blockchain, and a fee is charged for it.
Consider the example:
- The complexity of the callable function
- The transaction sender is a smart account:
- The transaction sender specifies
- The transaction contains 1 payment in a smart asset:
- The callable function performs 2 smart asset transfers and 1 token issue:
A= 3 and
The minimum fee for the Invoke Script transaction is (0.005 + 0.002) × 3 + 0.004 + 0.004 × 2 + 0.004 × 3 + 1 × 1 = 1.045 WAVES. If all transactions are successful, the fee is distributed as follows:
- for the Invoke Script transaction: 0.005 + 0.002 + 0.004 + 0.004 × 2,
- for the first Continuation transaction: 0.005 + 0.002,
- for the last Continuation transaction: 0.005 + 0.002 + 0.004 × 3 + 1 × 1.
Note: if the sender specifies the transaction fee more than the minimum of 1.045 WAVES, the remainder will be returned to them even if all stages are successfully completed.
If the Invoke Script transaction fails after the computations' complexity exceeds the threshold for saving failed transactions:
- If the callable function execution fails, then the sender pays 0.005 + 0.002 + 0.004 = 0.011 WAVES. The unused fee of 1.034 WAVES is returned.
- If all operations of the callable function within the complexity of 4000 are completed, but one of the asset scripts denied the transaction, the sender also pays 0.004 WAVES for each asset script actually executed. For example, if the first asset script returned
falseor failed, and the second asset script has not started execution, then the sender pays 0.005 + 0.002 + 0.004 + 0.004 × 1 = 0.015 WAVES. The unused fee of 1.030 WAVES is returned.
If the first Continuation transaction fails, then the sender pays (0.005 + 0.002) × 2 + 0.004 + 0.004 × 2 = 0.026 WAVES. The unused fee of 1.019 WAVES is returned.
If the last Continuation transaction fails:
- If the callable function execution fails, then the sender pays (0.005 + 0.002) × 3 + 0.004 + 0.004 × 2 = 0.033 WAVES. The unused fee of 1.012 WAVES is returned.
- If the callable function result is successfully calculated, but one of the asset scripts denied the transaction, the sender also pays 0.004 WAVES for each asset script actually executed. For example, if the first asset script returned
true, the second asset script returned
falseor failed, and the third asset script has not started execution, then the sender pays (0.005 + 0.002) × 3 + 0.004 + 0.004 × 2 + 0.004 × 2= 0.041 WAVES. The unused fee of 1.004 WAVES is returned.
# Application Status
applicationStatus values for an Invoke Script transaction:
succeeded: computations are completed successfully.
script_execution_failed: the dApp script or an asset script failed.
script_execution_in_progress: the computation sequence is not completed yet. It's a transitory status: when the computations are completely executed or fail, the
applicationStatusof the Invoke Script transaction becomes the same as the last Continuation transaction:
applicationStatus values for a Continuation transaction:
succeeded: the computation stage is completed successfully.
script_execution_failed: the dApp script or the asset script failed.